BLOODY SUNDAY 25th ANNIVERSARY
Have You Forgotten Bloody Sunday?
This document is part of the Ireland History section of the documentary collection, World History Archives, and is associated with the world history resource page, Gateway to World History.
The road to Bloody Sunday began 27 years ago, October 5, 1968, when 500 civil-rights demonstrators marching along Duke Street in Derry were baton-charged and beaten off the streets by the sectarian RUC. In 1968, the only answer the Stormont regime could give to the raising of the banner of civil rights by the nationalist people of the six counties was naked repression.
By January 30, 1972, the only thing that had changed was the length to which the Unionists and the British government were prepared to go to intimidate nationalist protesters from the streets. In the interim, CS gas, water cannon, rubber bullets-even internment without trial and martial law-had failed.
The march in Derry on January 30, 1972, was one of nine marches organized that month by the Civil Rights Association and Northern Resistance Movement to protest against internment (introduced in August 1971). At the same time, a blanket ban had been imposed on street demonstrations by the Stormont regime, making all civil-rights marches illegal. When a group of protesters marched along Magilligan beach on January 22nd to the internment camp there, they were savagely batoned by British occupation forces. It was a foretaste of what was to come if the nationalist people still chose to defy British rule.
This they planned to do on Sunday, January 30th, by marching in their thousands from Bishops field in the Creggan Estate to the Guildhall in Derry city center.
In the days after the attack on the Magilligan protesters, the Derry CRA released a defiant statement saying: "Just as the violence used by the RUC in the march on Duke Street strengthened the determination of the people to use their rights peacefully on the streets, so this latest act of violence by the authorities strengthens the will of the people of Derry to march in peaceful protest on Sunday next."
A crowd of around 10,000 left the Bishops field that day, swelling to twice that figure by the time it had covered the 3-mile route to the Bogside. The day was sunny but cold. There was no sense of impending doom. Indeed, as the (English) Guardian's newspaper correspondent, Simon Winchester, noted, "The mood seemed almost ebullient, with mothers wheeling prams, children weaving here and there, laughing, joking, playing pranks on the television men, and generally adding to an air of a Derry carnival."
The first hint that this mood was to be cruelly shattered came at William Street, where the advance of the crowd was blocked by a British-army barricade.
As the crowd turned backwards to reconvene the proposed rally at Free Derry Corner (where Bernadette Devlin McAliskey and Fenner Brockway were to speak), CS gas, water cannon and rubber bullets were unleashed by the occupation forces from the 1st Battalion of the Parachute Regiment. Minutes later, at approximately 4:17 p.m., just as Bernadette Devlin was about to speak, a hail of bullets came whizzing along Rossville Street without warning, fired at the large crowd standing at the barricade outside Rossville Flats.
Without realizing what was happening, attendees dived to the ground for cover, stunned and panic-stricken. Others ran to the shelter of the stairwells of Rossville Flats. Those caught in the open at the barricade along Rossville Street were cut down by the deadly accuracy of British snipers.
Within seconds, with Saracen armored cars sweeping into the courtyard of the apartment buildings and British soldiers (from the Royal Anglian Regiment) raking the Bogside with bullets from positions atop of the Derry walls, the entire area became a killing ground. For twenty minutes the firing continued, with momentary lulls. Anyone who moved was mercilessly picked off by British snipers. White handkerchiefs were ignored, and fire was concentrated on anyone attempting to go to the aid of the injured. To move at all was to invite certain death.
Of the 13 who died during those 20 minutes (another victim, John Johnston, was to die six months later from his wounds) James Wray, Gerald McKinney, Gerard Donaghy and William McKinney were murdered at Glenfada Park, where they ran to escape the hail of bullets down Rossville Street. Their escape route was cut off by other paratroopers firing down from the corner of Frederick Street. Wray was wounded twice, and lay, unable to move, in the open, as others tried to reach him. His father said:
"One man saw him move and knew my lad was only injured. So he made an attempt to get out to him, and as he approached, the army opened fire on him. His body was lying there as a trap and anybody who went to save him was going to be shot. Minutes later, as Jim looked up, they shot him, from a distance of nine feet, in his back as he lay in the street."
As others continued to flee, Gerald McKinney stood holding his hands above his head when a soldier approached him and, at pointblank range, shot him in the chest. Kevin McElhinney was on his hands and knees.
Paddy Doherty had gone out to pick up one of the wounded, when he himself became a target. The same with 17-year-old Michael Kelly and 41-year-old Bernard McGuigan.
THE SLAUGHTER CONTINUES
Michael Kelly's father recalled in the Derry Journal of February 1st, 1972, "My young fellow saw a man of about 50 years getting hit, and he ran to see what he could do for him. As he ran towards him, he [Kelly] was shot in the stomach. It was the first time at a march in his life."
Bernard McGuigan, holding up a white handkerchief to walk out to save Paddy Doherty, was shot in the base of the skull. When 19-year-old William Nash was shot at the barricade along Rossville Street, his father Alex went to his aid. Alex Nash was shot twice in the chest while bending over his wounded son, shouting at the soldiers to stop.
Not far away, in the shelter of the barricade, 17-year-old John Young was dragging himself, wounded, towards the door of the Rossville Flats with onlookers screaming from the windows, "Come on lad, come on, you're nearly there." John Young never made it; he was another victim of Bloody Sunday. Bloody Sunday shook nationalist Ireland to the core. When the news of the mass murder broke, a tidal wave of anger and revulsion swept all of Ireland. The British authorities responded swiftly with a major international propaganda offensive through the media and the Widgery Tribunal whitewash.
No paratrooper was ever brought to trial for the murders, however. In fact, their commander that day was decorated the following year by the Engish queen. There were to be no official apologies, no media outpourings of grief and outrage, no national appeals for sympathy for the innocent victims of Bloody Sunday. Only contempt. As Simon Winchester wrote: "Thanks to the propaganda merchants, and half a dozen lazy hacks, Bloody Sunday became a closed book."
Yet, despite the neat PR job the British establishment have done covering up the facts about Bloody Sunday, they have never been able to shake the conviction of the thousands of survivors of that day that Bloody Sunday was a shoot-to-kill operation, a massacre, planned and executed with cold blooded intent.
As the father of one of the Bloody Sunday victims, Jim Wray, put it: "The British planned at cabinet level to put our people off the streets, to shoot them if necessary. They were prepared to take that chance, they took that chance, and they gave us Bloody Sunday."
And, as the solitary stone monument in the Bogside attests, six of the Bloody Sunday victims were 17 years of age. The British were shooting to kill Irish children.
Few could have known that the journey that began in Derry's Duke Street on October 5, 1968, was to end with a blood-soaked civil-rights banner lying in aBogside gutter on January 30,1972.
Yet, 27 years on from Duke Street, the risen nationalist people are still marching-through more shoot-to-kill executions, judicial whitewashes and crown-force cover-ups-and they are still carrying their banners.
14 Facts about Bloody Sunday
1.On January 30, 1972, soldiers from the British Army's 1st Parachute Regiment opened fire on civilian demonstrators in the Bogside, Derry, Ireland, near the Rossville flats, killing 13 and wounding a number of others. One wounded man later died from illness attributed to that shooting.
2.The march, which was called to protest internment, was "illegal" according to British government authorities. Internment without trial was introduced by the British government on August 9, 1971.
3.The march took place one week after the British Army beat protesters off the strand near Magilligan during a civil rights protest in which the now-SDLP leader John Hume was involved.
4.Marchers assembled in Creggan, proceeded down Creggan Street and then William Street and had intended to march to the Guildhall in the center of the city, but that was changed to avoid confrontation with the British Army, which had barricaded the top of William Street at Waterloo Street.
5.The march began around 3 p.m. and was attended by about 5,000 people at the beginning. It grew in size to about 10,000 by the time it reached the Bogside Inn and the Free Derry Corner.
6.The Bloody Sunday march was heavily attended by young people.
7.One of those who spoke at the rally at the Free Derry Corner (where the marchers assembled rather than the Guildhall) was Bernadette Devlin, 23-year-old MP for Mid-Ulster.
8.The first shots were fired by the British Army about 3:55 p.m.
9.The British-government-appointed Widgery Tribunal found soldiers were not guilty of shooting dead the 13 civilians in cold blood.
10.The British Army officer commanding the troops, Lieutenant Colonel Derek Wilford, was in 1973 named to the Queen's "Honours List," and given a knighthood.
11.Britain's Prince Charles is "ceremonial" commanding officer of 1 Para
12.The British government and the British Army never apologized for these murders.
13.Those who were murdered:
Jack Duddy, 17, hit by single bullet as he ran across courtyard of Rossville Flats
Michael Kelly, 17, shot in stomach as he stood on pile of rubble near entrance to Glenfada Park, off Rossville Street.
James Wray, 22, shot and wounded as he ran through alleyway from Glenfada Park to Abbey Park, then shot again and killed.
Gerald McKinney, 35, shot and killed by bullet to chest has he ran with hands raised toward soldiers in Glenfada Park.
Gerald Donaghey, 17, shot in abdomen, as he ran up to flat in Abbey Park. Died on way to hospital.
William McKinney, 26, shot and killed as he bent over Gerald McKinney in Glenfada Park.
John Young, 17, hit by bullet in head and killed as he stood beside rubble barricade across Rossville Street.
Michael McDaid, 20, shot dead standing by same barricade.
William Nash, 19, shot in chest and killed. At same barricade.
Patrick Doherty, 31, shot in buttock while crawling toward Rossville Flats. Bullet traveled up spine and exited chest, instantly killing him.
Bernard McGuigan, 41, killed instantly when hit in back of head as he crawled toward body of Pat Doherty near Rossville Flats.
Hugh Glimour, 17, killed by bullets that passed through his elbow and across his body as he ran up Rossville Street.
Kevin McElhinney, 17, killed as he crawled to a doorway inRossville Flats. Bullet enter his buttock and traveled through his body.
John Johnson died later from illness associated with injury suffered on that day.
Patrick O'Donnell, Patrick McDaid, Alex Nash, Patrick Campbell, Peggy Deery, Daniel McGowan, Michael Bridge, Michael Quinn, Joseph Mahon, Joseph Friel and Michael Bradley were all wounded by gunfire that day. Alana Burke was injured when a British Army armored personnel carrier crushed her against a wall.
14.None of the dead or wounded were armed. No shots were fired at the British Army.
Information compiled from "Bloody Sunday in Derry, What really happened," by Eamonn McCann, 1992, Brandon Books, Dingle, Co. Kerry, Ireland.